Full Stack Language Enablement

This has been a working document for a while. I am publishing it here so that it can serve for more public discussion. Thank you to Co-authors: Anshuman Pandey, Isabelle Zaugg. Also thanks to others have discussed these items over the years such as Martin Raymond.

a “full stack” of resources


There are a lot of steps to be taken in order to ensure that a language is fully supported. The objective of this document is to collect the steps needed and begin to plan how to accomplish them for particular languages. The intent is for this to serve as a guide to language community members and other interested parties in how to improve the support for a particular language.

The diagram below shows languages in one axis, and the “stack” of support tasks on the other.

Language vs the “Support Stack”

Coordination is key. Finding and communicating with the right people is often at least as difficult as the technical aspects. ScriptSource can be a good “central hub” to collect/publish information and needs for a user community.


A critical step is of course Unicode encoding, but that is only the first step. Also, there can be (through no fault of anyone’s) a long gap between the first contact with a user community and the publication of a Unicode version supporting that language, not to mention other steps. The Script Encoding Initiative at UC Berkeley works closely with language communities working to encode their scripts in Unicode.

In the course of the encoding process, a lot of information is gathered which is relevant to other steps such as grammatical considerations and best practices around font and layout support.

  • Standardizing of the script ideally/typically happens before Unicode inclusion, but sometimes this can hold up Unicode inclusion, or be an ongoing challenge if it is incomplete after Unicode inclusion. Standardization of the script, as well as the orthography, are very helpful for digital vitality in general, as a standardized orthography helps “search” to work well, for example.


Martin Raymond recommends to: “…split drawing [of the] glyphs from making the fonts work. Anyone can draw the glyphs, realize that font designers will work later to connect attachment points etc. later.”

In other words, the critical initial step is to get the correct glyphs from the user community.

Note that there is a need for fonts for different purposes: aesthetic, low resolution, small devices.


Determine if layout requirements are “complex” or not. (See the “shaping required” field of CLDR Script Metadata).

Support through W3C’s Layout & Typography project: https://www.w3.org/International/layout

  • From website: “The W3C needs to make sure that the text layout and typographic needs of scripts and languages around the world are built in to technologies such as HTML, CSS, SVG, etc. so that Web pages and eBooks can look and behave as people expect around the world.”

OS-level support

  • Desktop support
  • Mobile support (possibly even more important than desktop for global minority scripts)


  • Keyboard
    • Virtual keyboards for mobile devices
    • Managing repertoire (Unihan, etc)
    • Transliteration standard into Latin script (This is helpful for input when a keyboard supporting the target script is unavailable.)

Locale Data

CLDR seed/initial data (see CLDR Minimal Data)

  • Needed: an app to collect initial data (a true “Survey Tool”)
  • Within CLDR: Promote from “seed” to “common” as data matures
  • Verify deployment (inclusion in JSON data, ICU, Globalize, etc.)
    • Code changes may be needed, such as calendar and new date/time support, line breaking, etc.

Software Translation

Advanced NLP (Natural Language Processing)

The development of many NLP applications requires large digital corpora, the collection of which is a project in itself. Even when corpora are collected, say through web crawling, when they are not available publicly, other developers cannot benefit from them as a resource. Therefore, a freely available repository of digital resources in a target language, to which contributors can add, is an ideal first step for the following efforts.

  • OCR
  • Spell checking
  • Auto-correction, Auto-suggestion, Auto-fill
  • Parsing & Stemming (helps search to happen with related terms)
  • Language glossaries/dictionaries/thesauri
  • Search capacity within word documents & pdfs
  • Translation: Ideally not just dominant language to minority language, but also minority to minority language (for maximum use within countries that enjoy a high level of language diversity)
  • Natural language queries and conversation

App-Level Support

This means going beyond:

  • Multilingual readiness (Unicode support: “Don’t garble my text”)
  • Leverage locale data and implementations (ICU, etc.)
  • Translation (above)

…to truly supporting language specific features. Some examples:

  • Arabic and East Asian advanced typography
  • NLP support as above

ICANN / IDN support

Support for a script within top-level domains allows an important level of localization online that breaks from the historically Latin-only top level domains and reflects the truly international nature of the Internet. ICANN has made significant progress in this area, and is currently in the process of working with language communities to define rules for using many new scripts in TLDs (top level domains).

Computer programming language in mother tongue

While this may seem a far-fetched dream today, the fact that programming languages are in English is a barrier to the full use of digital tools by much of the world’s population. This might be the final frontier for the internationalization/localization of digital technologies. “قلب” is an example of a programming language entirely in Arabic.